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Kamis, 03 Maret 2011

.::: Definisi Qasidah Dan Kumpulan Video Qasidah :::.

Kasidah (qasidah, qasida; bahasa Arab: "قصيدة", bahasa Persia: قصیده atau چكامه dibaca: chakameh) adalah bentuk syair epik kesusastraan Arab yang dinyanyikan. Penyanyi menyanyikan lirik berisi puji-pujian (dakwah keagamaan dan satire) untuk kaum muslim.

Lagu kasidah modern liriknya juga dibuat dalam bahasa Indonesia selain Arab. Grup kasidah modern membawa seorang penyanyi bintang yang dibantu paduan suara wanita. Alat musik yang dimainkan adalah rebana dan mandolin, disertai alat-alat modern, misalnya: biola, gitar listrik, keyboard dan flute. Perintis kasidah modern adalah grup Nasida Ria dari Semarang yang semuanya perempuan. Lagu yang top yakni Perdamaian dari Nasida Ria. Di tahun 1970-an, Bimbo, Koes Plus dan AKA mengedarkan album kasidah modern.

1. Qasida in Original Version

Qasida (also spelled qasidah), in Arabic: قصيدة, plural qasā'id, قــصــائـد; in Persian: قصیده (or چكامه, chakameh), is a form of lyric poetry that originated in pre-Islamic Arabia. Well known qasā'id include the Qasida Burda ("Poem of the Mantle") by Imam al-Busiri and Ibn Arabi's classic collection "The Interpreter of Desires".

The classic form of qasida maintains a single elaborate meter throughout the poem, and every line rhymes. It typically runs more than 50 lines, and sometimes more than 100. It was adopted by Persian poets, where it developed to be sometimes longer than 100 lines.

2. Form

Qasida literally means "intention" and the genre found use as a petition to a patron. A qasida has a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. Often it is a panegyric, written in praise of a king or a nobleman, a genre known as madīḥ, meaning "praise".

In his 9th century "Book of Poetry and Poets" (Kitab al-shi'r wa-al-shu'ara') the Arab writer ibn Qutaybah describes the (Arabic) qasida as formed of three parts;

* a nostalgic opening in which the poet reflects on what has passed, known as nasib. A common concept is the pursuit of the poet of the caravan of his beloved: by the time he reaches their campsite they have already moved on.

* a release or disengagement, the takhallus, often achieved by describing his transition from the nostalgia of the nasib to the second section, the travel section or rahil, in which the poet contemplates the harshness of nature and life away from the tribe.

* the message of the poem, which can take several forms: praise of the tribe (fakhr), satire about other tribes (hija) or some moral maxim (hikam).

While many poets have intentionally or unintentionally deviated from this plan it is recognisable in many.

3. Persian variation

After the 10th century Iranians developed the qasida immensely and used it for other purposes. For example, Naser Khosro used it extensively for philosophical, theological, and ethical purposes, while Avicenna also used it to express philosophical ideas. It may be a spring poem (Persian بهاريه, baharieh) or autumn poem (Persian خزانيه, khazanieh). The opening is usually description of a natural event; the seasons, a natural landscape or an imaginary sweetheart. In the takhallos poets usually address themselves by their pen-name. Then the last section is the main purpose of the poet in writing the poem.

4. Persian exponents include;

* Farrokhi Sistani, the court poet of Mahmoud Ghaznavi (11th century), especially his 'Hunting Scene' (in Persian: قصيده شكارگاه),
* Masud Sa'd Salman (12th century) who was wrongfully imprisoned on the suspicion of treason
* Anvari Abiverdi, (12th century) especially his petition for help against the invasion of Mongols
* Khaghani Shervani (12th century)
* and in the 20th century, Mohammad Taghi Bahar with his innovations in using the qasida for political purposes.

From the 14th century CE Persian poets became more interested in ghazal and the qasida declined. The ghazal developed from the first part of qasida in which poets praised their sweethearts. Mystic poets and sufis used the ghazal for mystical purposes.

5. The Urdu Qasida

Qasida in Urdu poetry is often panegyric, sometimes a satire, sometimes dealing with an important event. As a rule it is longer than the ghazal but follows the same system of rhyme.

7. Kumpulan Video Qasidah

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